China and France Joint Presidential Statement on Climate Change (Beijing, 2 November 2015)
1. On the occasion of President François Hollande’s state visit to China, the Presidents of the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of France reaffirm their strong conviction that climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, which calls for all countries working together for the common good in the context of sustainable development.
2. Recalling the Durban mandate to adopt a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change applicable to all Parties, President Xi Jinping and President François Hollande strengthen their resolve to work together and with leaders of all other countries to reach an ambitious and legally binding Paris agreement on the basis of equity and reflecting the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances, mindful of the below 2°C global temperature goal.
3. China and France emphasize that the Paris agreement must send out a clear signal for the world to transition to green and low-carbon, climate-resilient and sustainable development.
4. With this in mind, they stress the importance of shifting the global economy onto a low carbon path in the course of this century, at a rhythm consistent with strong economic growth and equitable social development, and the below 2°C global temperature goal. They also recognize the importance of progressively transitioning towards clean energy systems, taking into account different natural resources endowments and social preferences. They also underscore the importance of formulating 2050 national low-carbon development strategies.
5. The two sides reaffirm the need for developed countries continuing to take the lead, by undertaking ambitious economy-wide absolute quantified emission reduction targets; and the importance of developing countries to enhance their diversified mitigation actions over time, in the context of sustainable development, including by progressively moving towards economy-wide quantifiable emission reduction or limitation targets, depending on their national circumstances, enabled by incentive and support as appropriate.
6. China and France underscore the importance of demonstrating through the Paris agreement the equal political importance of climate change mitigation and adaptation. The two sides stress the need for the Paris agreement to contribute to effectively strengthening adaptation capacities. They underline the importance of formulating and implementing national adaptation plans, mainstreaming climate change considerations in national planning and activities of economic and social development and taking diversified adaptation actions and projects. Both sides stress the urgency of enhancing international support towards adaptation planning and actions in developing countries, mindful of the needs of those that are particularly vulnerable.
7. China and France reaffirm the critical importance of defining a clear and credible pathway towards achieving the goal of mobilizing by developed countries of USD 100 billion of climate finance per year by 2020, coming from a wide variety of sources, public and private, bilateral and multilateral, and including alternative sources of finance, to support transparent mitigation and adaptation actions in developing countries and enhance their capacity-building. They welcome the new commitments of developed countries and multilateral financial institutions at the recent IMF/World Bank meeting in Lima at which the OECD-CPI report was presented. They call on developed countries that have not yet done so to increase their support for climate change mitigation and adaptation in developing countries.
8. The two sides emphasize the importance of developed countries continuing, in the post-2020 period, to provide and mobilize enhanced finance, technology and capacity-building support to developing countries for ambitious mitigation and adaptation actions and, especially in terms of adaptation, to developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Complementary support by other countries willing to do so should be encouraged and recognized.
9. China and France emphasize the essential role of technology innovation to meet the interrelated challenges of climate change mitigation and adaptation, growth and development, energy access and energy security. Both sides support a further strengthening of the existing technology mechanism, with a view to cooperating on technology development and transfer, including through joint research and development, demonstration and other related activities.
10. China and France underline the need to include in the Paris agreement an enhanced transparency system to build mutual trust and confidence and promote effective implementation including through reporting and review of action and support. It should provide flexibility to those developing countries that need it in light of their
11. Both sides also agree that the Paris agreement shall include provisions for Parties to formulate, communicate, implement and regularly update their nationally determined contributions. They support taking stock every five years and in a comprehensive manner of overall progress made towards reaching the agreed long-term goals. The results of this stocktake will inform Parties in regularly enhancing their actions in a nationally determined manner.
12. China and France emphasize the importance of adopting a working program in Paris on accelerating the pre-2020 implementation in terms of mitigation, adaptation
and means of implementation, and convening a facilitative dialogue in 2017/2018 to take stock of any progress made and explore the possibility of further enhancing pre-2020 action and support.
13. China and France recall their bilateral partnership on climate change established by the Joint Declaration on Climate Change of 2007 and agree to enhance their coordination and cooperation on climate change. The two sides will strengthen their exchanges in particular on lowcarbon infrastructure, carbon capture and storage
technologies, renewable energy, energy efficiency, lowcarbon transportation, low-carbon urbanization, circular economy, adaptation and carbon market. China and France emphasize the importance of carbon pricing which can take different forms and consider in this respect that the development of a national carbon market in China is an important milestone and a strong and encouraging signal.
14. Their cooperation will include exchange of best practices, technology research and development, investment in low-carbon projects and solutions, and joint investment on third markets. Both sides also intend to make available their respective 2050 national low-carbon development strategies as early as possible in the next 5 years.
15. China and France recognize the importance of green financing and low-carbon investment and will make efforts to encourage financial flows to resource efficient and low-carbon projects. Both sides also recognize the need for cooperation on green financing and low-carbon investment. Both sides stress the critical role to be played by national and multilateral development banks in this regard, in particular to further leverage public and private investments.
16. France and China underscore the critical role of cities, regions, provinces and businesses in addressing climate change and encourage actions by non-state actors in promoting the long-term transition to a low-carbon, climate resilient and sustainable society.
17. Building on the bilateral Consultation Mechanism created in 2010, the two sides agree to launch the China France Working Group on Green and Low-Carbon
Economy, with a view to enhancing their bilateral dialogue and practical cooperation on climate and energy related issues.
18. China and France recognize the importance of mobilizing climate finance to support low-carbon, climate-resilient development in developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, small island developing states and African countries. France reiterates its commitment to increase its annual support from €3 billion today to more than €5 billion by 2020. China reiterates its announcement to make available ¥20 billion for setting up the China South-South Climate Cooperation Fund to support other developing countries to combat climate change.
19. Both sides commit to a substantial increase of their respective public investments in low-carbon energy technology research, development and demonstration (RD&D) by 2020, and agree to further explore opportunities for jointly developing cooperative projects in areas of mutual interest.
20. China and France will work constructively and cooperatively together and along with all Parties to the Convention to support developing countries to transition to green and low-carbon development and build climate resilience, including through tripartite cooperation. The two sides will explore the possibility to develop cooperation in third countries on renewable energy, energy efficiency, and disaster prevention and reduction, particularly in developing countries. They appreciate and support the efforts by African countries and other developing countries to accelerate the development of renewable energy and enhance climate resilience, including the implementation of the Initiative for Renewable Energy in Africa and the Climate Risk and Early Warning Systems initiative.
21. China and France will also strengthen their dialogue and cooperation on climate change related issues in other multilateral fora. The two sides recognize the role of the G20 in mobilizing the necessary political support for a successful Paris outcome and its effective implementation and promoting green financing, energy efficiency, carbon market mechanisms and phasing out of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies.